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Mushrooms - this is what fruit bodies of macromycetes fungi isolated in the independent kingdom of wildlife, or Fungi, are called in colloquial usage. The shape of the fruiting body of an edible fungus can be very diverse. Edible forest mushrooms grow on the territory of our country with hat-shaped, fan-shaped, multi-cap, coral-shaped, spherical, cup-shaped and open fruit bodies or with colorful and plain hats.
Depending on the soil and climatic conditions in the growing region, the beginning and end of the mushroom period can vary both in terms of time and in intensity. The first spring, there are a few varieties of morels, champignons and conditionally edible lines. They are collected almost immediately after snow melting and soil warming up.
In addition, it should be remembered that edible species may fall into one of four categories by nutritional value. Even if the mushroom is edible, its taste is not too high, so you need to be able to identify and distinguish the most valuable types of mushrooms. The ten most popular edible species in our country are as follows.
|View name||Fruit season||Fruit body and pulp||Nutrition Category|
|Morel (from Latin Morchella)||From mid-April to the last decade of May||Wrinkled and winding hat of brown color. The leg is shortened. Pulp requires boiling||Conditionally edible mushroom of the third category|
|Maypole Mushroom (from Latin Calócybe gambósa)||From mid-May to the last days of June||Creamy flocculent cap. The leg is straight, whitish. The pulp is dense, with a mealy taste and aroma||Edible or conditionally edible, mediocre taste|
|Oyster mushroom (from Latin Pleurotus)||From the first decade of May to the last days of October||The hat is light, with curved edges. Leg is small in size. The pulp has a pleasant taste with unexpressed aroma||Edible, mediocre taste|
|Cep (from Latin Boletus edulis)||From the last decade of June to the end of October||A hat with a smooth or wrinkled surface, brownish or dark brown. The leg is powerful and stocky. Pulp with high nutritional value||Great edible mushroom of the first category|
|Ginger (from Latin Lactarius)||From mid-summer to the first decade of October||Fruit bodies have a characteristic yellow-pink or orange-red color||Great edible mushroom of the first category|
|Chanterelle real (from Latin Cantharēllus cibārius)||From the first of June to October||A characteristic orange-yellow color of fruit bodies with a pronounced fruity aroma of pulp||Great edible mushroom of the first category|
|Red-headed boletus (from Latin Leccinum aurantiacum)||From mid-June to the last days of September||The hat is covered with red, orange or brownish-red, smooth or slightly velvety skin. Leg with longitudinally fibrous scales. Pulp without pronounced taste and aroma||Good edible mushroom of the second category|
|Common boletus or blackhead (from Latin Leccinum scabrum)||From the last decade of May to mid-October||Hat of various colors. Leg with longitudinal whitish or dark colored scales. The pulp has no pronounced taste and aroma.||Good edible mushroom of the second category|
|Oiler (from Latin Suillus)||From the first of June to October||The hat is most often smooth, covered with a sticky or mucous membrane that can be easily peeled off. The leg may have the remains of the bedspread. The pulp may turn blue or redden on the cut||Good edible mushroom of the second category|
|Honey agaric (from Latin Armillaria melle)||From the middle of the last summer month to the middle of October||The surface of the cap is covered with rare and light scales, which disappear over time. The leg is continuous. Pulp with a pleasant taste and smell||Edible mushroom of the third category|
A little less popular among connoisseurs of "silent hunting" are mugs, moss-flies, oak trees, trawls and numerous varieties of russula.
The main condition for a successful and correct "quiet hunt" is the ability to correctly distinguish between edible species from inedible and very poisonous. To help novice mushroom pickers, not only special pictures have been created that clearly illustrate the main differences between edible and inedible species of mushrooms, but also a detailed description of the fruiting body of the mushroom, which allows you to find out what they are called and look like.
What mushrooms can cause poisoning or cause irreparable harm to human health, can be recognized based on the following recommendations:
The greatest danger is the deadly poisonous mushroom, the pale grebe, which has a whitish or pale green hat and a translucent ring on the leg. It is strictly forbidden to pick unfamiliar or suspicious mushrooms.
Fresh fruit bodies of mushrooms are almost 90% water. Also, mushroom pulp contains about 3-6% protein and the same amount of carbohydrates. During the drying process, the amount of protein increases to 30-50 g for every 100 g of product.
The fat content in the pulp does not exceed 1%. The composition and nutritional value vary depending on the type and place of growth. Nevertheless, almost all edible mushrooms are very highly appreciated by consumers and nutritionists for a fairly balanced content of fiber, vitamins, minerals and extractive substances. Many varieties are suitable for universal cooking, for which they must first be prepared:
It should be remembered that in children under three years of age there are completely no enzymes that are responsible for the digestion of specific mushroom proteins, so mushroom dishes should be completely excluded from the diet of preschool children.
Knowing where the main types of edible mushrooms grow, you can quite easily collect a good crop of high-quality fruiting bodies:
It is best to collect mushrooms in wicker baskets, where the fruit bodies will be provided with ventilation and there is no risk of getting a shapeless and sticky mushroom mass during transportation.