Features of self-repair punch

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The hammer drill is a percussion machine, the work of which is represented by shock-rotational movements. The main difference from the drilling process is punching a hole with a drill.

The device of the cartridge and the hammer

Design features of the punch depend on the manufacturer and functional characteristics. In general, the design of all rotary hammers is similar, and based on work:

  • shock mechanism;
  • gearbox;
  • electric motor;
  • cartridge.

The work of the hammer is due to the presence of a vertically or horizontally located commutator motor. For smaller rotary hammers, a horizontal motor arrangement is more commonly used., which makes the use of the tool comfortable, but negatively affects the load. Vertical placement of the engine gives the striker and piston system a large amplitude, so the tool can withstand a significant load.

A mandatory component of any hammer drill is represented by a percussion mechanism, depending on the type of which the tool can be:

  • electromechanical;
  • electro-pneumatic.

The second option, with low engine power, allows you to provide maximum impacting energy. Lightweight rotary hammers have a swing bearing. Medium and heavy tools are distinguished by the presence of a crank mechanism.

The lightweight impact mechanism is represented by a piston, striker, bearing and ram. A heavier tool, in addition to the crank mechanism, has a ram, hammer, piston and nozzle.

Operating principle:

  • supply of torque from the engine to the inner bearing bush;
  • receiving vibration from the perpendicular axis represented by the outer sleeve and piston;
  • launching a ram;
  • piston vibration and shock;
  • impact striker on the working part of the cartridge.

As a result of such actions, the power of the motor part is converted into sufficient impact force.

How to change an impact bolt in a perforator

Other tool components

As additional nodes and devices that make the work as convenient, easy and efficient as possible, are used:

  • anti-vibration device;
  • depth gauge;
  • dust removing agents.

Manufacturers of rotary hammers are developing new and modern anti-vibration systems that can be both active and passive. The active type of AVS-systems is installed exclusively on the most powerful models.

The damping or vibration reduction during the operation of the tool is carried out by a shock-absorbing device, a counterweight to the spring. The passive system is represented by conventional rubber pads on the body. A safety clutch protects the motor when it stops instantly and prevents burnout and overheating with increased current values.

DIY punch repair

Hammers, regardless of type, are most often operated in rather difficult conditions, which are accompanied by vibrations, shock force and a significant amount of dust, which can provoke the appearance of mechanical and electrical breakdowns. The most characteristic electrical failures are most often represented by the problems of the start button and the wear of the brushes. Do-it-yourself troubleshooting is not recommended. Such problems can only be fixed by professional electricians-wrappers.

The button and graphite brushes to purchase and replace yourself is quite simple, and most often they come as an optional kit to the instrument. The main condition for proper replacement in case of DIY repair is strict observance of the location of the configuration contacts and the clamp in accordance with the factory connection. The failure of electricians is accompanied by excessive sparking, noise and a characteristic burning smell coming from the body.

If the tool does not turn on, the cause may be a breakdown in the electrics or a failure in the mechanical part. The mechanical part may become unusable as a result of the negative effects of dust and dirt that fall into the moving parts of the punch, as well as when exceeding the permissible load. To minimize the risk of strips of mechanics, you need to regularly return the tool for preventive maintenance to a repair shop, where grease and bearings, as well as impact components, will be correctly selected.

Tool disassembly

When the instrument is unstable, the appearance of uncharacteristic sounds, noise and smell of burning, as well as the absence of inclusion, The puncher needs to be disassembled correctly:

  • dilute the gearbox and the device body to form a gap with a width of 305 cm;
  • move the switch to the shock position and remove the switch;
  • dismantle the housing from the gearbox;
  • disassemble the cartridge;
  • disconnect the mode switch lever;
  • remove the anchor by unscrewing the three bolts and removing the cover.

Lightweight rotary hammers can be repaired independently, and the replacement of parts of a professional tool must be entrusted to professionals.

How to change the puncher stator (video)

Step-by-step troubleshooting

The category of the most common and common problems that accompany the operation of a domestic and professional rotary hammer includes both quick and easy fixes, and requiring maintenance in repair shops. All of the problems listed below require replacing damaged items.



Trunk cracks

Collision of a load-working drill with steel reinforcement deep in the drill hole

Damage to the hammer on the percussion mechanism

Collision of a load-working drill with steel reinforcement deep in the drill hole

Critical wear on the inner stem surface

The long period of operation of the perforator in the absence of lubrication of the shank of the drill and chisel

Gear damage

Dropping a tool or getting a solid piece of construction debris on a running gear

Clutch breakage on the clutch

Switching operating modes under load

Jamming and turning of the support bearing in the seat

Systematic ingress of the building dust bearing or incorrect, untimely care

Scuffing on the lamellas at the anchor

Lack of control of the condition and degree of deterioration of carbon brushes

Wear on motor winding protection

Fall in the absence of engine stop

Lubrication and other rotary hammer maintenance

When servicing the punch, you need to focus on the following simple recommendations:

Rotary hammers equipped with a special switch to three positions:

  • hammer or jackhammer;
  • rotation or function of the drill;
  • rotation with shock.

Before you start working directly with a hammer drill, you must definitely set the switch to the desired position.

Appointment and application of burchards for a puncher

Buchard is a special hand tool in the form of a small steel hammer, which has a toothed working surface. The teeth on the surface are characterized by a peculiar pyramidal shape. Buchard is used in the treatment of concrete, stone, plastered and other hard surfacesfrom which it is necessary to chip off unnecessary layers, which allows you to achieve products with the desired shape.

Application area:

  • for applying notches on the surface in order to obtain a stronger bonding;
  • in order to remove the old paint layer and clean the surface from various contaminants;
  • if necessary, remove rust from metal surfaces.

This type of nozzle is used to maximize the mechanization of work. Such a nozzle is made by casting. The standard nozzle most often has four rows of four teeth in each row, which allows you to process about a thousand square meters of concrete surface. Among other things, Buchards with 25, 36 or 49 carbide teeth have been launched. This option nozzle allows you to quickly and easily get rid of concrete flows.

Preventive measures to protect against breakdowns

The main preventive measures include timely cleaning of the tool a couple of times a month and impregnation with a special varnish or grease. The choice of lubricants must be approached very competently and carefully:

  • it is recommended to purchase and use solutions made by the same manufacturer as the tool itself;
  • it is allowed to use oils used for diesel engines;
  • in addition to the purchase of lubricants, it is necessary to buy brushes that wear out first.

When carrying out planned equipment prevention, it is recommended to use carbon-graphite brushes, which are characterized by an optimal combination of cost and quality, to replace. Self-service tool involves monitoring the level of lubricant through a round hatch located in the upper or rear.

For example, in the prevention of the model Sparky experts recommend the use of lubricating solutions based on Litol-24 grease with the addition of Tsiatima. It is also allowed to use pure Litol-24. When using professional equipment, it is advisable not only to repair, but also to carry out preventive work exclusively in specialized service centers.

How to fix a hammer drill

Not only household, but also professional punchers need a serious attitude in the process of operation and maintenance, therefore it is very important to know the device and the basic rules for working with it. Understanding the design allows not only to independently carry out basic, simple repair work, but also helps to extend the life of the tool.


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