Soil liming technology in spring and autumn



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Liming of the soil is a common method of chemical reclamation on acidic soils and consists in the application of calcareous fertilizers, most often represented by calcite, dolomite or limestone. Periodic liming of the soil is carried out in order to balance the acid-base balance and eliminate the causes that inhibit plant growth.

What is the purpose of liming?

Acidic soils, with rare exceptions, require correct and timely liming. Such soil treatment in the garden and the garden is very necessary for several reasons:

  • the acidic environment of the soil disrupts the processes of phosphorus and nitrogen activity, as well as a trace element important for the growth and development of plants, such as molybdenum;
  • significant amounts of fertilizers have to be applied to acidic soil, which is due to a decrease in the effectiveness of beneficial microorganisms and an increase in the number of pathogenic microflora and bacteria that have a negative effect on plants;
  • sufficient fertilizers do not reach the root system, and as a result, growth, development and vegetation are severely disrupted.

To neutralize the acid in the soil they are deoxidized. As a rule, liming is performed for deoxidation, which results in substitution for calcium and magnesium. Lime causes acid to decompose into salt, and the catalyst for this reaction is carbon dioxide.

However, it must be remembered that it is very dangerous to spread lime fertilizers uncontrollably. This can provoke an excess of calcium in the soil and hinder the growth of the root system. Among other things, to grow some vegetable crops and fruit trees, liming the earth is absolutely unnecessary. The slightly acidic pH6-7 medium is required for the following cultures:

  • beans;
  • dill;
  • Tomatoes
  • eggplant;
  • corn;
  • melon;
  • zucchini;
  • squash;
  • horseradish;
  • spinach;
  • rhubarb;
  • carrot;
  • garlic;
  • kale;
  • radish;
  • chicory;
  • watermelon;
  • bow.

Mid-acid soil with a pH of 5.0-6.5 is required for the following crops:

  • potatoes;
  • pepper;
  • Beans
  • sorrel;
  • parsnip;
  • pumpkin.

A strongly acidic soil with a pH of less than 5 is needed for crops such as blueberries, cranberries, mountain ash, blueberries, lingonberries and junipers.

How to deoxidize the soil

How to recognize acidic soils: proven methods

To know what deoxidants need to be added to the soil and how much, it is necessary to determine the level of acidity. To this end, the following methods are used:

  • litmus strips treated with a special reagent and changing color depending on soil acidity indicators;
  • Alamovsky’s device, represented by a set of reagents designed for the analysis of water and salt extraction of soil;
  • soil meter, which is a multifunctional device that allows you to determine the reaction of the soil, its moisture content, temperature and light levels.

The most accurate and costly way to determine the acidity in a specialized laboratory. Less effective methods are folk methods using acetic acid, leaves of currant or cherry, as well as grape juice or chalk. Experienced gardeners and gardeners are able to determine the acidity by means of weeds on the site. Weeds of acidic soils include field horsetail, plantain, heather, sorrel, nettle, white sow, sorrel, buttercup and popovnik.

In what form and how much lime should be applied

The best option for agricultural activities are slightly acidic soils, but in our country lands with high acidity prevail. Such properties are characteristic of sod-podzolic, many peat-bog soils, gray forest lands, red soils and parts of leached chernozems. Deoxidation is most often carried out with quicklime, but the addition of such agents as slaked lime or lime water is also permitted. The rate of lime application per hundred square meters varies depending on the type of soil and acidity indicators:

  • pH = 4 and lower on clay and loamy soils requires deoxidation with ground limestone in the amount of 500-600 g per square meter;
  • pH = 4 and lower on sandy and sandy loamy soils requires deoxidation with ground limestone in the amount of 300-400 g per square meter;
  • pH = 4.1-4.5 on clay and loamy soils requires deoxidation with ground limestone in the amount of 400-500 g per square meter;
  • pH = 4.1-4.5 on sandy and sandy loamy soils requires deoxidation with ground limestone in the amount of 250-300 g per square meter;
  • pH = 4.6-5.0 on clay and loamy soils requires deoxidation with ground limestone in the amount of 300-400 g per square meter;
  • pH = 4.6-5.0 on sandy and sandy loamy soils requires deoxidation with ground limestone in the amount of 200-300 g per square meter;
  • pH = 5.1-5.5 on clay and loamy soils requires deoxidation with ground limestone in the amount of 250-300 g per square meter.

The full dose should be applied to a depth of 20 cm, and partial deoxidation is carried out at a depth of 4-6 cm.

Soil acid indicator plants

How is liming the soil in autumn

Deoxidation of land in the fall helps to effectively solve a number of very serious problems in a personal or garden plot:

  • activation of vital microorganisms, including nodule bacteria;
  • enrichment of the soil with basic nutrients in the form most accessible to garden and garden plants;
  • improvement of the physical properties of the earth, including water permeability and structural features;
  • increasing the efficiency of fertilizers of mineral and organic origin by 30-40%;
  • a decrease in the amount of the most toxic, harmful elements in cultivated garden and vegetable products.

In the fall, experienced gardeners recommend using an affordable deoxidizer in the form of regular wood ash, which contains about 30-35% calcium. This option is popular due to the relatively high content of phosphorus, potassium and other trace elements in wood ash, which beneficially affect the growth and development of garden plants.

Lime processing technology in spring

In the spring it is recommended to adhere to the following liming recommendations:

  • it is better to plan an event approximately three weeks before sowing or planting vegetable garden crops;
  • for liming, it is optimal to use powdered and well distributed agents on the soil layers;
  • A good result is given by the application of lime in the early spring, immediately before the first loosening of the earth, introducing deoxidants in small portions.

Important to remember, that any fertilizers, as well as the main biologically active additives, are applied to the soil only after liming. As practice shows, the addition of a couple of kilograms of pure lime mixed with high-quality humus is more effective than ten kilograms of lime flour, just scattered throughout the garden territory.

Features of primary and secondary liming

The best and most effective way of liming the soil is to carry out liming at the initial stage of development of a personal plot or when laying the territory of garden plantings. If, for any reason, liming has not been performed previously, it is allowed to carry out high-quality deoxidation in areas that are already occupied by fruit and berry crops or garden and flowering plants.

A significant part of plants grown under the conditions of home gardening and horticulture can easily carry out liming regardless of the time of year. The one exception is garden strawberries. The beds intended for the cultivation of such a berry culture can be liming about a year and a half before planting. On ridges with already planted strawberries, deoxidation is performed no earlier than a couple of months after planting.

Re-liming of the soil is carried out necessarily in full doses once every ten years. Small doses of deoxidizing agents may be administered more frequently. Very important correctly determine the need for re-liming in accordance with the characteristics of the soil and the features of caring for it. With the frequent use of top dressing with manure, re-liming can be neglected, and the frequent use of mineral fertilizers makes deoxidation a necessary event.

How to determine the acidity of the soil

The most uniform liming of soils is most effective; therefore, it is recommended to introduce deoxidizers represented by powder formulations into the ground, as well as be sure to accompany such events by digging with uniform mixing.



Comments:

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