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Liming of the soil is a common method of chemical reclamation on acidic soils and consists in the application of calcareous fertilizers, most often represented by calcite, dolomite or limestone. Periodic liming of the soil is carried out in order to balance the acid-base balance and eliminate the causes that inhibit plant growth.
Acidic soils, with rare exceptions, require correct and timely liming. Such soil treatment in the garden and the garden is very necessary for several reasons:
To neutralize the acid in the soil they are deoxidized. As a rule, liming is performed for deoxidation, which results in substitution for calcium and magnesium. Lime causes acid to decompose into salt, and the catalyst for this reaction is carbon dioxide.
However, it must be remembered that it is very dangerous to spread lime fertilizers uncontrollably. This can provoke an excess of calcium in the soil and hinder the growth of the root system. Among other things, to grow some vegetable crops and fruit trees, liming the earth is absolutely unnecessary. The slightly acidic pH6-7 medium is required for the following cultures:
Mid-acid soil with a pH of 5.0-6.5 is required for the following crops:
A strongly acidic soil with a pH of less than 5 is needed for crops such as blueberries, cranberries, mountain ash, blueberries, lingonberries and junipers.
To know what deoxidants need to be added to the soil and how much, it is necessary to determine the level of acidity. To this end, the following methods are used:
The most accurate and costly way to determine the acidity in a specialized laboratory. Less effective methods are folk methods using acetic acid, leaves of currant or cherry, as well as grape juice or chalk. Experienced gardeners and gardeners are able to determine the acidity by means of weeds on the site. Weeds of acidic soils include field horsetail, plantain, heather, sorrel, nettle, white sow, sorrel, buttercup and popovnik.
The best option for agricultural activities are slightly acidic soils, but in our country lands with high acidity prevail. Such properties are characteristic of sod-podzolic, many peat-bog soils, gray forest lands, red soils and parts of leached chernozems. Deoxidation is most often carried out with quicklime, but the addition of such agents as slaked lime or lime water is also permitted. The rate of lime application per hundred square meters varies depending on the type of soil and acidity indicators:
The full dose should be applied to a depth of 20 cm, and partial deoxidation is carried out at a depth of 4-6 cm.
Deoxidation of land in the fall helps to effectively solve a number of very serious problems in a personal or garden plot:
In the fall, experienced gardeners recommend using an affordable deoxidizer in the form of regular wood ash, which contains about 30-35% calcium. This option is popular due to the relatively high content of phosphorus, potassium and other trace elements in wood ash, which beneficially affect the growth and development of garden plants.
In the spring it is recommended to adhere to the following liming recommendations:
Important to remember, that any fertilizers, as well as the main biologically active additives, are applied to the soil only after liming. As practice shows, the addition of a couple of kilograms of pure lime mixed with high-quality humus is more effective than ten kilograms of lime flour, just scattered throughout the garden territory.
The best and most effective way of liming the soil is to carry out liming at the initial stage of development of a personal plot or when laying the territory of garden plantings. If, for any reason, liming has not been performed previously, it is allowed to carry out high-quality deoxidation in areas that are already occupied by fruit and berry crops or garden and flowering plants.
A significant part of plants grown under the conditions of home gardening and horticulture can easily carry out liming regardless of the time of year. The one exception is garden strawberries. The beds intended for the cultivation of such a berry culture can be liming about a year and a half before planting. On ridges with already planted strawberries, deoxidation is performed no earlier than a couple of months after planting.
Re-liming of the soil is carried out necessarily in full doses once every ten years. Small doses of deoxidizing agents may be administered more frequently. Very important correctly determine the need for re-liming in accordance with the characteristics of the soil and the features of caring for it. With the frequent use of top dressing with manure, re-liming can be neglected, and the frequent use of mineral fertilizers makes deoxidation a necessary event.
The most uniform liming of soils is most effective; therefore, it is recommended to introduce deoxidizers represented by powder formulations into the ground, as well as be sure to accompany such events by digging with uniform mixing.