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Many people think that fern grows only in forests. However, many species of this plant are successfully grown in apartments. Caring for this crop at home is not as difficult as it might seem at first glance.
Indoor fern belongs to the family of vascular spore plants. Indoor species of ferns is a large group of plants that differ in the shape of foliage and the shape of the plant itself. There are decorative species whose foliage is carved and descends in cascade. In other species, the foliage is superimposed on each other, and in others it is collected in sockets.
Ferns are an intermediate link between moss, algae and gymnosperms. They preserved a peculiar structure from ancient times, but were able to adapt to modern living conditions.
Their foliage can be curly, cirrus, or many times dissected. Only the emerging leaves are twisted in a spiral, and as it grows, this spiral unwinds and darkens. The root system of ferns, as in many plants, is located in the soil layer.
Graceful foliage, branches well, petioles are dark
The foliage at the base is forked, young leaves are pinkish brown
Adiantum Venus Hair
Its thin petioles look like hair, their color is light brown, the foliage is round, small, brightly emerald
It grows well in partial shade, requires increased air humidity, the foliage has the shape of a gladiatorial sword, a darker vein runs through the center of the sheet, the edges are slightly wavy, can extend up to 0.6 m in length
Petioles of the plant in appearance resemble wires, they are dark in color, the leaves are cirrus saturated emerald color
The rhizome of this fern is shaggy and creeping. On the aerial part of the flower, wide and narrow foliage is simultaneously found
The crown of this fern in width can grow up to a meter. Therefore, it needs a spacious room. The foliage is stiff; in an adult plant, the main trunk is well developed
The stems of this species can reach a height of up to 2.4 m. Foliage is arcuate, curved, carved, pale emerald shade
The view is not afraid of drought and drafts. The leaves are elongated, carved at the edges, their color is dark emerald
The foliage of this fern is similar to the tops of carrots, and the rhizome is usually selected from the soil of the pot out
This species requires a lot of free space, as an adult plant can reach a height of 5 to 6 meters. Its foliage is leathery, faded green. Barrel - powerful, dark brown
Didimochlena slightly truncated
It grows well and in the shade. The foliage is shiny, leathery, small, truncated, green in color with a brown tint.
It grows well in the shade, but requires regular watering and high humidity. The foliage is located vertically, its edges are even. The stems are long and thin, covered with thin scales.
Foliage can be extended up to 0.6 m.
The plant is stretched to a height of 0.3 m, the rhizomes are small. Foliage rounded, leathery.
One of the most suitable types of fern, which is suitable for indoor cultivation, is nephrolepis. This fern is distinguished by high decorativeness, good endurance. Its foliage may be dark or light green depending on the lighting in the room and the composition of the soil in the pot.
The conditions in which ferns are grown at room conditions are practically no different from natural conditions. And first of all, this concerns the soil, which must be selected for the cultivation of any type of fern.
The basis for such a mixture is sheet soil with the addition of peat, sand and humus. This soil should have a sufficiently high acidity and be loose. At the bottom of the pot, it is better to put any drainage material, it is best expanded clay. The thickness of such a layer should be 3-5 cm. Drainage is necessary so that moisture does not stagnate in the soil. Stagnant moisture can cause rhizomes to rot. The first sign of such rotting is the appearance of brown spots on the foliage.
Since the rhizome of this plant is small and grows better in width than in depth, therefore, it needs a low but wide pot with holes in the bottom so that the water does not stagnate in the ground.
Many gardeners mistakenly believe that ferns love shade.. However, if the fern is in the shade, then its vegetative mass slows down growth, often such a plant even dies.
Typically, most of these plants are placed in a place that is well lit, but outside the area of the sun. For foliage to grow large and healthy, ferns need diffused and bright light. Typically, such plants are placed in the area on the southwest side of the room.
The temperature in the room should be maintained within +16, + 23 ° С. But for some species of these plants, certain conditions should be created:
All ferns grow better in ventilated rooms, but cannot stand drafts.
Ferns need to be fed during the spring-summer season. Usually use potash fertilizers (preferably in liquid form). Fertilize should be every 25 to 30 days. But in winter, these plants should not be fed, as they are at rest, and fertilizers can stimulate their growth ahead of time.
The main thing when caring for these plants is the properly conducted irrigation. Ferns need a lot of water. But watering the plants is required when the top layer has dried up a couple of centimeters. Usually, the regularity of watering depends on the ambient temperature: if the summer is hot, then ferns are watered 2-3 times a week. And in winter, the amount of watering is sharply reduced to one in 7 days.
Ferns do not tolerate prolonged drying of the soil. If the soil is overdried for even two to three days, even subsequent heavy watering will not help this plant recover. Stagnant moisture in the soil is also detrimental to these shrubs. In this case, the roots begin to rot, and then the aboveground parts of the plant rot.
High humidity is also necessary for these plants. In the hot season, as well as if ferns are not far from heating appliances, they need to be sprayed daily 3-4 times a day.
Usually this plant is transplanted annually. Ferns grow quickly, so the old flowerpot quickly becomes small.
In order not to injure the rhizome during transplantation, these shrubs simply transfer from a smaller pot to a larger one along with a lump of earth. This procedure should be carried out in the spring, when the plant is just starting to grow. When transplanting in the fall, the fern "comes to life" for too long after this procedure, and sometimes even dies.
A new pot is usually selected a few centimeters wider than the previous one. The plant is carefully transferred from one pot to another, while making sure that the earth does not fall from the roots. Then you should fill the void in the new pot with soil.
There are several ways to propagate a home fern. It is easiest to propagate ferns by dividing the bush. Sometimes this plant is propagated by spores. However, this process is too laborious and not always effective. It is much easier to propagate this shrub by dividing the bush. And only under natural conditions, these plants reproduce only by spores.
Typically, this division is carried out when replacing a fern, so as not to injure the plant once again.
When a bush with an earthen lump is removed from an old pot, they carefully examine the rhizome. Root sockets are immediately visible on it. These are children who are carefully separated from the rhizome along with its part. These children are created special conditions for transplantation, so that they take root faster and go on growing.
Usually the plant begins to hurt, or is exposed to an invasion of pests if it is constantly looked after incorrectly.
If the fern is watered with non-protected water, in which there is a high chlorine content, or if it is cold, then a nematode may attack it. The foliage at the same time begins to turn yellow and fall. Usually the only salvation is an urgent bush transplant. When transplanting, fern must be treated with insecticides.
If the humidity in the room is low, then the fern can be attacked by pests such as scale insects, aphids or thrips. Every day, plants should be sprayed to avoid this. If insects nevertheless appeared on the foliage, then the fern should be treated with special preparations.
Growing indoor ferns is a very interesting activity. And if you follow all the rules for caring for these plants, then there will be no problems with shrubs.